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Configure Oracle Database 12c for Auditing

The following auditing modes are available for Oracle Database 12c:

  • Mixed Mode—Default auditing in a newly installed database. It enables both traditional and the new Unified audit facilities. Netwrix recommends not to use Mixed Mode auditing together with Netwrix Auditor. If you want to leave it as it is, make sure that your audit records are stored to the XML audit trail, otherwise Netwrix Auditor will not be able to collect changes made with SYSDBA or SYSOPER privilege.

    NOTE: The product does not log any errors on these events to the Netwrix Auditor System Health log.

  • Unified Auditing—Recommended. See the following Oracle technical article for detailed instructions on how to enable Unified Auditing: Enabling Unified Auditing.

    Perform the following steps to configure Unified Auditing on your Oracle Database:

    • Create and enable an audit policy to audit specific parameters across your Oracle Database.

      NOTE: After an audit policy has been enabled or disabled, the product starts collecting data after succeeding logon session.

    • If needed, create and enable specific audit policies to audit successful data access and changes, user actions, component actions, etc.

To configure Oracle Database 12c Unified Auditing

  1. On the computer where your database is deployed, run the sqlplus tool.
  2. Connect to your Oracle Database—use Oracle account with the SYSDBA privilege. For example:

    OracleUser as sysdba

    Enter your password.

  1. Create and enable audit policies. Review the following for additional information:

    To monitor... Execute the command...
    Configuration changes
    • Create an audit policy (e.g., nwx_actions_pol) for any user:

      CREATE AUDIT POLICY nwx_actions_pol ACTIONS
      CREATE TABLE,DROP TABLE,ALTER TABLE,GRANT,REVOKE,
      CREATE VIEW,DROP VIEW,CREATE PROCEDURE,
      ALTER PROCEDURE,RENAME,AUDIT,NOAUDIT,
      ALTER DATABASE,ALTER USER,ALTER SYSTEM,
      CREATE USER,CREATE ROLE,SET ROLE,DROP USER,
      DROP ROLE,CREATE TRIGGER,ALTER TRIGGER,
      DROP TRIGGER,CREATE PROFILE,DROP PROFILE,
      ALTER PROFILE,DROP PROCEDURE,
      CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW,DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW,
      ALTER ROLE,TRUNCATE TABLE,CREATE FUNCTION,
      ALTER FUNCTION,DROP FUNCTION,CREATE PACKAGE,
      ALTER PACKAGE,DROP PACKAGE,CREATE PACKAGE BODY,
      ALTER PACKAGE BODY,DROP PACKAGE BODY,LOGON,LOGOFF,
      CREATE DIRECTORY,DROP DIRECTORY,CREATE JAVA,
      ALTER JAVA,DROP JAVA,PURGE TABLE,
      CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE,ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE,
      DROP PLUGGABLE DATABASE,CREATE AUDIT POLICY,
      ALTER AUDIT POLICY,DROP AUDIT POLICY,
      CREATE FLASHBACK ARCHIVE,ALTER FLASHBACK ARCHIVE,
      DROP FLASHBACK ARCHIVE;

    • Enable the audit policy:

      AUDIT POLICY nwx_actions_pol;

      NOTE: To disable audit policy, use the following command:

      NOAUDIT POLICY nwx_actions_pol;

    Data access and changes (successful and failed)
    • Create the audit policy (e.g., nwx_actions_obj_pol):

      CREATE AUDIT POLICY nwx_actions_obj_pol ACTIONS
      DELETE on hr.employees, INSERT on hr.employees,
      UPDATE on hr.employees, SELECT on hr.employees, FLASHBACK on hr.employees CONTAINER = CURRENT;

    • Enable the audit policy (e.g., nwx_actions_obj_pol):

      AUDIT POLICY nwx_actions_obj_pol;

    Component actions: Oracle Data Pump, Oracle Recovery Manager, and Oracle SQL*Loader Direct Path Load
    • Create the audit policies (e.g., nwx_sqlloader_dp_pol, etc.):

      NOTE: No special configuration required to audit RMAN events.

      CREATE AUDIT POLICY nwx_datapump_exp_pol ACTIONS COMPONENT=DATAPUMP EXPORT;

      CREATE AUDIT POLICY nwx_datapump_imp_pol ACTIONS COMPONENT=DATAPUMP IMPORT;

      CREATE AUDIT POLICY nwx_sqlloader_dp_pol ACTIONS COMPONENT=DIRECT_LOAD LOAD;

    • Enable these policies:

      AUDIT POLICY nwx_datapump_exp_pol;

      AUDIT POLICY nwx_datapump_imp_pol;

      AUDIT POLICY nwx_sqlloader_dp_pol;

  2. If necessary, enable more granular audit policies. Review the following for additional information:

    To... Execute the command...

    Apply audit policy to selected users

    AUDIT POLICY nwx_actions_pol BY SYS, SYSTEM, <user_name>;

    Exclude user actions from being audited (e.g., exclude failed Operator actions)

    AUDIT POLICY nwx_actions_pol EXCEPT Operator WHENEVER NOT SUCCESSFUL;

    Audit successful actions of selected user (e.g., Operator)

    AUDIT POLICY nwx_actions_pol BY Operator WHENEVER SUCCESSFUL;

For additional information on CREATE AUDIT POLICY and AUDIT POLICY parameters, see the following Oracle Database administration documents:

Currently, Netwrix Auditor checks audit settings for Unified Auditing when accomptability is enabled for ACTIONS. If any of your current settings conflict with the audit configuration required for Netwrix Auditor, these conflicts will be listed in the Netwrix Auditor System Health event log.

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